1. Import the Selenium library

You can get Selenium from here.

from selenium import webdriver

2. Start the webdriver and the browser

Starting the webdriver and the Chrome browser.

You can get ChromeDriver from here.

chromedriver = "C:/tests/chromedriver.exe"
driver = webdriver.Chrome(executable_path = chromedriver)

Starting the webdriver and the Firefox browser.

You can get GeckoDriver from here.

geckodriver = "C:/tests/geckodriver.exe"
driver = webdriver.Firefox(executable_path = geckodriver)

Starting the webdriver and the Internet Explorer browser.

You can get IEDriverServer from here.

iedriver = "C:/tests/IEDriverServer.exe"
driver = webdriver.Firefox(executable_path = iedriver)

Starting the webdriver and the Safari browser.

Nothing to download. The SafariDriver is integrated in Safari.

driver = webdriver.Safari()

Instead of having machines with all those browsers, I just use Endtest.

It’s a platform for Codeless Automated Testing where you can create, manage and execute tests on real browsers on Windows and macOS machines and mobile devices.

3. Open a website

the_url = "https://example.com"

4. Find an element

Let’s try to find this element:

<a href="/sign-up" id="register" name="register" class="cta nav-link">Sign Up</a>

Find element by ID

the_id = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)

Find element by Name

the_name = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_name)

Find element by Class Name

the_class_name = 'nav-link'
element = driver.find_element_by_class_name(the_class_name)

Find element by Tag Name

the_tag_name = 'a'
element = driver.find_element_by_tag_name(the_tag_name)

Find element by Link Text

Works only for anchor elements.

the_link_text = 'Sign Up'
element = driver.find_element_by_link_text(the_link_text)

Find element by Partial Link Text

Works only for anchor elements.

the_partial_link_text = 'Sign'
element = driver.find_element_by_partial_link_text(the_partial_link_text)

Find element by CSS Selector

You can extract the CSS Selector from the browser.

Or you can write your own by using an attribute from the element:


For our element, a custom CSS Selector would be:

the_css_selector = 'a[href="/sign-up"]'
element = driver.find_element_by_css_selector(the_css_selector)

Find element by XPath

You can extract the XPath from the browser.

Or you can write your own by using an attribute from the element:

//*[@attribute = "attribute_value"]

For our element, a custom XPath would be:

//a[@href = "/sign-up"]

You can read more about that here.

the_xpath = '//a[@href = "/sign-up"]'
element = driver.find_element_by_xpath(the_xpath)

5. Click on an element

the_id = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)

6. Write text inside an element

Works only for inputs and textareas.

the_id = 'email'
the_email = 'klaus@werner.de'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)

7. Select an option

Works only for select elements.

<select id="country">
<option value="US">United States</option>
<option value="CA">Canada</option>
<option value="MX">Mexico</option>

Let’s select Canada. 🇨🇦

You can use the visible text:

the_id = 'country'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
select_element = Select(element)

You can use the value:

the_id = 'country'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
select_element = Select(element)

You can also use the index:

the_id = 'country'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
select_element = Select(element)

8. Take a screenshot

the_path = 'C:/tests/screenshots/1.png'

Selenium does not offer Screenshot Comparison but we know who does.

9. Upload a file

This works by using the send_keys method to write the local path of the file in the input type=”file” element.

Let’s use this example:

<input type="file" multiple="" id="upload_button">
the_file_path = 'C:/tests/files/example.pdf'
the_id = 'upload_button'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)

You can read more about uploading files in a test here.

10. Execute JavaScript

In some cases, you might need to execute some JavaScript code.

This works exactly like you would execute it in your browser console.

js_code = 'document.getElementById("pop-up").remove()'
driver = execute_script(js_code)

11. Switch to iframe

<iframe id="payment_section">
   <input id="card_number">
   <input id="card_name">
   <input id="expiration_date">
   <input id="cvv">
the_iframe_id = 'payment_section'
the_element_id = 'card_number'
the_iframe = driver.find_element_by_id(the_iframe_id)
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_element_id)

Endtest also supports iframes and it even supports Shadow DOM.

12. Switch to the next tab

You have to store the handle of your current tab in a global variable.

If you have only one tab open, the handle is 0.

global nextTab
global currentTab
nextTab = currentTab + 1
currentTab = currentTab + 1

13. Switch to the previous tab

global previousTab
global currentTab
previousTab = currentTab - 1
currentTab = currentTab - 1

14. Close tab


15. Close alert


16. Refresh


17. Hover

the_id = "register"
the_element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
hover = ActionChains(driver).move_to_element(the_element)

18. Right Click

the_id = "register"
the_element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
right_click = ActionChains(driver).context_click(the_element)

19. Click with offset

In order to precisely click on a certain position in a canvas element, you have to provide the offset.

The offset represents the number of pixels to the right and down, starting from the top left corner of your canvas element.

the_id = "register"
the_element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)
x = 30
y = 20
offset = ActionChains(driver).move_to_element_with_offset(the_element,x,y)

You can read how to do this with Endtest here.

20. Press Key

the_id = 'register'
element = driver.find_element_by_id(the_id)

21. Drag and drop

element_to_drag_id = 'ball'
target_element_id = 'goal'
element_to_drag = driver.find_element_by_id(element_to_drag_id)
target_element = driver.find_element_by_id(target_element_id)
ActionChains(driver).drag_and_drop(element_to_drag_id, target_element).perform()

22. Get Page Source

the_page_source = driver.page_source

23. Get Cookies

cookies_list = driver.get_cookies()

24. Delete Cookies

cookie_item = 'shopping_cart'
# delete one cookie
# delete all cookies

25. Get first element from list

the_id = 'register'
list_of_elements = driver.find_elements_by_id(the_id)
first_element = list_of_elements[0]

26. Configure Page Load Timeout


27. Configure Element Load Timeout

from selenium.webdriver.support.ui import WebDriverWait

the_id = 'register'
WebDriverWait(driver,10).until(EC.presence_of_element_located((By.ID, the_id)))

28. Set window size

driver.set_window_size(1600, 1200)

29. Change the user agent string

the_user_agent = 'hello'
chromedriver = 'C:/tests/chromedriver.exe'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_argument('--user-agent = '+ the_user_agent)
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)

30. Simulate webcam and microphone

chromedriver = 'C:/tests/chromedriver.exe'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)

31. Add Chrome Extension

chromedriver = 'C:/tests/chromedriver.exe'
extension_path = 'C:/tests/my_extension.zip'
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)

32. Emulate mobile device

google_pixel_3_xl_user_agent = 'Mozilla/5.0 (Linux; Android 9.0; Pixel 3 XL Build/OPD3.170816.012) AppleWebKit/537.36 (KHTML, like Gecko) Chrome/61.0.3163.98 Mobile Safari/537.36'
pixel_3_xl_emulation = {
   "deviceMetrics": {
      "width": 411, 
      "height": 731, 
      "pixelRatio": 3
   "userAgent": google_pixel_3_xl_user_agent
options = webdriver.ChromeOptions()
options.add_experimental_option("mobileEmulation", pixel_3_xl_emulation)
driver = webdriver.Chrome(
   executable_path = chromedriver, 
   chrome_options = options)


Debt to GDP ratio by country

So your job is to scrape the national debt to GDP for each country listed in this website ‘http://worldpopulationreview.com/countries/countries-by-national-debt/‘.

The population is not required to be scraped, however if you want to scrape it that’s fine.

Now since this will be your first exercise, I’m gonna list below the steps you need to follow:

  1. First thing first please scaffold a new project called ‘national_debt‘ and then generate a spider within that same project called “gdp_debt

  2. The website does use the “http” protocol by default so there is no need to modify that in the ‘start_urls’ since by default Scrapy will use “http

  3. Next inside the parse method make sure to iterate(loop) through all rows and yield two keys ‘country_name‘ and ‘gdp_debt

  4. Finally make sure to execute the spider

A sample of the output: